In this review, we will discuss how the cell of origin may modulate breast cancer intratumoral heterogeneity ITH as well as the role of ITH in the evolution of cancer. The clonal evolution and the cancer stem cell CSC models, as well as a model that integrates clonal evolution with a CSC hierarchy, have all been proposed to explain the development of ITH. The extent of ITH correlates with clinical outcome and reflects the cellular complexity and dynamics within a tumor. A unique subtype of breast cancer, the claudin-low subtype that is highly resistant to chemotherapy and most closely resembles mammary epithelial stem cells, will be discussed. Furthermore, we will review how the interactions among various tumor cells, some with distinct mutations, may impact breast cancer treatment.
Emotions and Breast Cancer
Side effects of radiation for breast cancer: What to know
Content type: Research article. Diffusion-weighted imaging DWI can increase breast MRI diagnostic specificity due to the tendency of malignancies to restrict diffusion. Diffusion tensor imaging DTI provides further information over conve Authors: Jing Luo, Daniel S. Rendi and Savannah C. Citation: Breast Cancer Research 21 The incidence of brain metastases in breast cancer BCBM patients is increasing.
What are the side effects of radiation for breast cancer?
However, you may have some long-term side effects. New side effects may occur months or even years after treatment ends. Talk with your health care provider about any health issues you have.
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer among American women. An estimated , new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed in women in the United States in , according to the American Cancer Society. Breast cancer accounts for 15 percent of all new cancer diagnoses and 7 percent of all cancer deaths each year. Breasts are made of a variety of different tissues, including ducts, lobes and lobules and glands that produce milk and carry it to the nipple. The breasts also contain lymph nodes and fatty tissue.