Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The therapeutic efficacy of these drugs is well established. However, these drugs are associated with a wide range of side effects, including a variety of movement disorders. The newer antipsychotics have a lower propensity to cause acute extrapyramidal side effects and tardive dyskinesia.
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Facial tic from Seroquel?
Tardive dyskinesia TD is a movement disorder characterized by uncontrolled facial movements such as repetitive tongue movements, chewing or sucking motions, and involuntarily making faces. It may also involve movements of the limbs or torso. It is caused by long-term use of neuroleptic drugs as well as other drugs that increase the brain's sensitivity to the neurotransmitter dopamine. Tardive dyskinesia causes repetitive, involuntary, and purposeless movements and tics often in the face such as:. People with tardive dyskinesia may also experience uncontrolled movements in arms, legs, and torso, including toe-tapping, hip rocking, and uncontrollable finger movements that look as though the person is playing an invisible guitar or piano. One theory about the cause of tardive dyskinesia TD is that over time, blocking dopamine receptors on nerve cells can cause the brain to compensate by creating more dopamine receptors and making them more sensitive, which can lead to tardive dyskinesia.
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Atypical antipsychotics are widely believed to be better tolerated in adults than first-generation, or typical antipsychotics, and more likely to be taken long-term. They are less likely to cause tremors and other serious movement disorders that affect users of typical antipsychotics. In contrast to the earlier drugs, atypicals usually work on serotonin receptors in addition to dopamine receptors. Drugs in this group include olanzapine Zyprexa , clozapine Clozaril , risperidone Risperdal , quetiapine Seroquel , ziprasidone Geodon , aripiprazole Abilify and paliperidone Invega. The drugs are prescribed for conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorders and may also be given for agitation, anxiety , psychotic episodes and obsessive behaviors.